Reference

CedarWaves.BandpassType

Bandpass(f1, f2)

Represents a band-pass filter with a pass band between frequencies w1 and w2

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CedarWaves.BandstopType

Bandstop(f1, f2)

Represents a band-stop filter with a stop band between frequencies w1 and w2

Band-stop FIR filters require an impulse function that hampers integration. Consider using other filter types where possible.

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CedarWaves.DxMeasureType
DxMeasure(point1, point2; options...)

Measurement of a difference (point2.x - point1.x) in two X values on the same signal (period, frequency, etc).

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CedarWaves.DyMeasureType
DyMeasure(point1, point2; options...)

Measurement of a difference (point2.y - point1.y) in two Y values on the same signal (peak2peak, etc.)

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CedarWaves.HighpassType

Highpass(f)

Represents a high-pass filter with cut-off frequency w

High-pass FIR filters require an impulse function that hampers integration. Consider using a band-pass filter where possible.

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CedarWaves.IntervalType
Interval(start, stop)

Defines an interval from the starttostop`value. Can also be written asstart .. stop` to create an Interval.

Examples

julia> a = 1 .. 3
[1 .. 3]

julia> first(a) == 1
true

julia> last(a) == 3
true

julia> 1.2 in a
true

julia> 10 in a
false
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CedarWaves.OnlineSignalFactoryMethod
OnlineSignalFactory([buffersize])
OnlineSignalFactory{XT, YT, DI}([buffersize])

Create a factory for online signals with an optional buffer size argument. It also accepts type parameters for the data types and interpolation type. These default to Float64 and LinearInterpolation respectively.

An online signal is one that is backed by a Channel and CircularBuffer for samples. A simulator or parser can push (x, y) samples onto the channel which get added to the buffer. (The buffer is shared between signals made in this factory) Iterative measures can then run @async to analyse the data as it comes in.

Warning

Not all functions are compatible with online analysis. Online analysis works best with functions that return iterators. Functions based on integrals are not suitable.

Warning

An online signal must consume all its samples exactly once. Online signals that are not consumed will block the channel when it becomes full. Online signals that are consumed more than once will return incorrect results.

Example:

sf = OnlineSignalFactory(50)

@sync begin
    @async for (x, y) in eachxy(new_online(sf))
        if y > 0.8 || y < -0.8
            println("signal exceeded limits at ", x)
        end
    end
    for t in 0:0.1:10
        put!(sf.ch, (t, sinpi(t^1.5)))
    end
    close(sf.ch)
end

pp = postprocess(sf)
println("rms: ", rms(pp))

A complete demo can be found in /demos/online/online.jl.

See also new_online, postprocess,

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CedarWaves.PeriodicType
Periodic(func, interval)

Returns a function with input x that wraps down to the base interval and then applies function func.

julia> f = Periodic(x->2x-3, 1 .. 2);

julia> f(0.0)
-1.0

julia> f(1.0)
-1.0

julia> f(2.0)
-1.0

julia> f(0.5)
0.0

julia> f(1.5)
0.0

julia> f(2.5)
0.0
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CedarWaves.SignalType
Signal

Signal is the base type representing a PWL, PWC, Series, or contiunous function (e.g. SIN). The main properties are that it tracks transforms such that they may be performed lazily for perfomance and ease of debugging. In additon, it tracks the domains, interpolation types, and whether or not the signal is periodic.

Construction

The signal type can be treated as either a function or a vector of data. Piecewise-Linear (PWL), Piecewise-constant (PWC), Series (Series) or a continuous function (ContinuousFunction) can be created, as follows:

julia> s1 = PWL(1:5, 2:6);
julia> s2 = PWC(1:5, 2:6);
julia> s3 = Series(1:5, 2:6);
julia> s4 = ContinuousFunction(x->sin(x));

Evaluation

To get the value of the signal (including between indicies) call the signal with the x value as follows. When calling the Signal as a function, all full_transform are applied, see below for (y_transform) details.

julia> s1 = PWL(1:5, 2:6)^2;  # `y_transform` to square the signal

julia> s1(1.5)
6.25

The key property of the Signal type, is that it behaves like a function, and has selectable interpolations over the base_y and base_x values. This interpolation function is stored in the following field:

  • full_transform

For example, calling abs on a Signal, the abs function will be lazily composed into the y_transform field, returning a new Signal

The main domains are represent by three fields:

  • base_x_interval: the underlying sampled data duration or period of the signal.
  • extrapolated_x_interval: the total domain of the signal, including repititions.
  • clipped_x_interval: represents constraints on the domain for clip-windowing opertations.

Note: that for non-period signals, the base_x_interval and extrapolated_x_interval are the same.

In additon, the follow fields is present:

  • xshift
  • xscale

These are used to represent shifts and scaling of the x axis.

Clip

When introspecting a signal, clip functions allow for one to focus into an area of interest. When calling clip on the signal the interval and indexing properties will change. This allows algorithms on a Signal resultant from a clip operation to only consider the area of interest, thereby improving performance. Note, that the clip operation on piecewise Signals will grow the indicies to cover the area of interest, though the intervals will be those requested in the clip operation.

julia> s1 = PWL(0:2, [1,-1,0]);

julia> s2 = clip(s1, 0.5 .. 1.5);

julia> s2(0.5)
0.0

julia> s2(1)
-1.0

julia> s2(1.5)
-0.5

Clips, compose by intersection of the request intervals against the current clipped_x_interval of the signal. To undo a clip, a restore it to the total domain of the signal, clip(s) may be used.

Internal

In additon to these three intervals, if the signal is derived from some form of sampled data, the following additonal fields will be populated:

  • base_indicies
  • extrapolated_indicies
  • clipped_indicies

The purpose of these is to track the mathematical covering of the domain. For example, if we have data in the integral range 1:5, and we perform a clip, from 2.5...3.5, we will track these indicies as 2:4.

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CedarWaves.SlopeMeasureType
SlopeMeasure(point1, point2; options...)

Measurement of a difference in two Y values on the same signal (slewrate, etc.)

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CedarWaves.TwoPointMeasureType
abstract type TwoPointMeasure <: AbstractMeasure end

A abstract result holder for a two-point measurement on a single signal. The measure will display a graphical preview of the signal and measurement and it can also be used like a regular number in math expressions. User should create their own type with the minimum fields below:

struct MyMeasure <: TwoPointMeasure
    pt1::AbstractMeasure
    pt2::AbstractMeasure
    options::MeasureOptions
end
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CedarWaves.XMeasureType
XMeasure(signal, x; options...)

Measurement of an X value with a corresponding Y value (such as a cross, xmin, xmax, etc).

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CedarWaves.YLevelMeasureType
YLevelMeasure(signal, y; options...)

Measurement of a Y value (level) with no corresponding X value (mean, etc).

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CedarWaves.YMeasureType
YMeasure(signal, x; options...)

Measurement of an X value with a corresponding Y value (such as a cross, xmin, xmax, etc).

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CedarWaves.ZeroPadType
ZeroPad(func, interval)

Returns a function that wraps the input function func such that it returns zero when outside the interval.

julia> f = ZeroPad(cos, 0 .. 2pi);

julia> f(-1)
0.0

julia> f(0)
1.0

julia> f(pi)
-1.0

julia> f(10)
0.0

See also clip.

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CedarWaves.ZeroPadMethod
ZeroPad(signal[, interval])

Pads the left and right of a signal with zeros. If no interval is defined for where the zero padding starts and ends then it uses the current signal domain. The zero padding extends the parent domain to infinity.

julia> pulse = clip(ZeroPad(PWL([0, 0.5], [1, 1])), 0 .. 1);

julia> pulse(0.75)
0.0

See also clip, Periodic.

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CedarWaves.eitherType
either(yth)

A rising or falling edge with a crossing threshold.

See also pct.

Examples:

To trigger on either a rising or falling edge at y-value of 0.5

either(0.5)

To trigger on either a rising or falling edge at y-value of 90% of full swing

either(90pct)
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CedarWaves.fallingType
falling(yth)

A falling edge with a crossing threshold.

See also pct.

Examples:

To trigger on a falling edge at y-value of 0.5

falling(0.5)

To trigger on a falling edge at y-value of 90% of full swing

falling(90pct)
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CedarWaves.risingType
rising(yth)

A rising edge with a crossing threshold.

See also pct.

Examples:

To trigger on a rising edge at y-value of 0.5

rising(0.5)

To trigger on a rising edge at y-value of 90% of full swing

rising(90pct)
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Base.Math.clampMethod
clamp(signal, y_interval)

Restrict the y-values to be between the y_interval

Examples

julia> c = clamp(PWL([1, 10], [-10, 10]), -3 .. 3);

julia> c(4)
-3.0

julia> c(7)
3.0
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Base.angleMethod
angle(x)
angle(signal)

Returns a signal with the (complex) y-values converted to radians. Alias for phase.

Tip

Since pi is an approximate number it is better for accuracy to work in degrees, see phased.

Examples

julia> angle(1)
0.0

julia> angle(1 + 1im) ≈ 2pi/8
true

julia> s = angle(PWL(0:1, [1, im]));

julia> s(0.5) ≈ 2pi/8
true

See also abs, real, imag, conj, phase, phased, angle, rad2deg, deg2rad.

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Base.sumMethod
sum(discrete_signal)

Returns the sum of a discrete signal's y-values over its domain acccording to the formula:

\[\mathrm{sum}(s)=\sum_{n=\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} s[n]\]

Examples

julia> sum(eachy(Series(0:2, [0,12,0])))
12

See also mean, integral, rms, std.

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CedarWaves.ContinuousFunctionMethod
ContinuousFunction(func; domain=-Inf..Inf, period=Inf)

Returns a continuous signal over the given domain.

Examples

julia> s = ContinuousFunction(turns -> sinpi(2turns); domain=-2 .. 2);

julia> s(1//4)  # sine at 1/4 revolution
1.0

For the domain of the signal above -2 .. 2 is the notation for a continuous Interval from -2 to 2.

Functions of infinite domain can aslo be created and then clipped to a finite domain. The benefit of this it allows the user to change the clip interval to any value since the parent signal has an infinite domain.

julia> COS = clip(ContinuousFunction(cos), 0 .. 8pi);

julia> COS(2pi)
1.0

See also PWL, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.DFTMethod
DFT(s; N)

Returns a Discrete Fourier Transform function of a continuous signal, s, sampled at N uniform points, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{DFT}(s)\big)(\mathit{freq}) = S(\mathit{freq}) = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} s(n T_\mathit{step}) \exp\left(-j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\, n T_\mathit{step}\right)\]

where:

  • N is the number of uniform sampling points over the the signal
  • freq is in Hertz and is a muliple of Fmin = 1/xspan(signal)
  • Tstep is xspan(signal)/N

The input signal is assumed to be periodic outside of its (clipped) domain such that s(t) = s(t+N*Tstep) for all t.

Options

  • N is the number of samples to use over the period.
Note

The DFT is two-sided meaning the amplitude of a signal is half at the positive frequency and half at the negative frequency (except for DC).

Examples

julia> dft = DFT(signal);

julia> dft(0) # DC value
0.5 + 0.0im

julia> plot(dft) # plot the result
Note

By default the domain of the transform is clipped to 0 .. 10. To change the domain use clip like clip(DFT(signal), 0 .. 100). Infinite domains are not returned by default because they cannot be plotted (in finite time).

See also FT, FS, iFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.DTFTMethod
DTFT(signal; [, integral_options...])
Warning

This is not yet implemented.

Returns a Discrete Time Fourier Transform function of a discrete signal, signal, sampled at uniform points, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{DTFT}(s)\big)(\mathit{freq}) = S(\mathit{freq}) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} s(n T_\mathit{step}) \exp\left(-j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\,n\right)\]

The Discrete Time Fourier Transform is for discrete aperiodic signals of infinite duration. Input signals with finite duration are automatically zero padded to ±infinity. The output is a function of the frequency freq which is from -0.5 to 0.5. To get the value of the Discrete Time Fourier Transform call the transform with the frequency of interest:

julia> dtft = DTFT(signal);

julia> dtft(0) # DC value
0.5 + 0.0im

Options

  • integral_options are options that can be passed to integral.

See also FS, DFT, iFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.EllipticMethod
Elliptic(n, rp, rs)

n pole elliptic (Cauer) filter with rp dB ripple in the passband and rs dB attentuation in the stopband.

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CedarWaves.FFTMethod
FFT(s; N)

Returns a Fast Fourier Transform of a signal evaluated at N points.

Examples

julia> freq = 100;

julia> t = 0:1e-3:1.025;

julia> y = sin.(2π * freq .* t);

julia> s = PWL(t, y);

julia> ft = FFT(s);

julia> ym = ymax(abs(ft));

julia> abs(freq - abs(ym.x)) < 1 / xspan(s)
true
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CedarWaves.FSMethod
FS(signal[, integral_options...])

Returns a Fourier Series function of a continuous-time signal, signal, with finite duration according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{FS}(s)\big)(\mathit{freq}) = S(\mathit{freq}) = \frac{1}{T} \int_{0}^{T} s(x) \exp\left(-j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\, x\right) \,\mathrm{d}x\]

The frequency-domain series returned is discrete and infinite extent with components at freq = k*Fmin where k = ... -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 ....

julia> T = 2
2

julia> pulse = clip(ZeroPad(PWL([-T/4, T/4], [1.0, 1.0])), -T/2 .. T/2);

julia> fs = real(FS(pulse));

julia> fs(0) # DC value
julia> fs(1) # 0.5 Hz
julia> fs(2) # 1.0 Hz
julia> fs(3) # 2.0 Hz
julia> fs(4) # 2.5 Hz
julia> fs(5) # 3.0 Hz
julia> fs = FS(signal);

julia> fs(0) # DC value
0.5 + 0.0im

julia> plot(fs) # plot the result

Options

  • integral_options are options that can be passed to integral.
Note

By default the domain of the transform is clipped to 0 .. 10. To change the domain use clip like clip(FS(signal), 0 .. 100). Infinite domains are not returned by default because they cannot be plotted (in finite time).

See also FT, DFT, iFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.FTMethod
FT(signal[, integral_options...])

Return a Signal which is the Fourier Transform function of another continuous signal, signal, with infinite duration, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{FT}(s)\big)(\mathit{freq}) = S(\mathit{freq}) = \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} s(x) \exp(-j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\,x) \,\mathrm{d}x\]

The Fourier Transform is for aperiodic signals of infinite duration. Input signals with finite duration are automatically zero padded to ±infinity. To get the value of the Fourier Transform call the transform with the frequency of interest:

julia> ft = FT(signal);

julia> ft(0) # DC value
0.5 + 0.0im

Options

  • integral_options are options that can be passed to integral.
Note

By default the output domain of the transform is clipped to ±10/xspan(signal). To change the domain use clip like clip(FT(signal), 0 .. 1e6). Infinite domains are not returned by default because they cannot be plotted (in finite time).

Examples

For an ideal pulse in the time domain of 2 seconds and amplitude 10 we use an ideal square wave (no risetime) and the Fourier Transforms assumes the signal is zero outside of its defined domain. Since the pulse is centered around zero it is an even function so the Fourier Transform will be real values only.

julia> A=10;

julia> w=2;

julia> pulse = PWL([-w/2, w/2], [A, A]);

julia> ft = FT(pulse);

julia> answer(f; A=A, w=w) = A*w*sinc(f*w);

julia> ft(0) == answer(0)
true

julia> ft(0.25) ≈ answer(0.25)
true

The following example uses the Fourier Transform to compute the Fourier Series components by dividing the FT by xspan(s) to normalize the results to periodic sinusoid amplitudes:

julia> t = PWL(0 .. 2, 0 .. 2);

julia> s = 0.5 + 3sinpi(2*2t) + 2cospi(2*4t);

julia> ft = abs(FT(s)/xspan(s));

julia> abs(ft(0)) ≈ 0.5 # DC component
true

julia> abs(ft(2)) + abs(ft(-2)) ≈ 3 # 2 Hz component
true

julia> abs(ft(4)) + abs(ft(-4)) ≈ 2 # 4 Hz component
true

The above is useful if the Fourier Series components are wanted but with the x-axis being frequency instead of an integer multiplies of the fundamental harmonic 1/xspan(s).

See also FS, DFT, iFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.PWAkimaFunction
PWAkima(xs, ys)
PWAkima(x_interval, y_interval)
PWAkima(xs, signal)
PWAkima(xs, function)

Returns a non-smooth signal with piecewise-akima spline interpolation over the x-values. An Akima spline interpolation is realistic for analog signals and hits each sample point exactly.

The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form takes two intervals for the domain of the signal. The third form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal at the x-values, xs while the fourth form samles a function.

Examples

julia> s = PWAkima(0:4, [0, 1, 1, 0, 3]);

julia> s(1) == 1.0 # samples maintained
true

julia> s(1.5)
1.0875

See also PWC, PWL, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.PWCFunction
PWC(xs, ys)
PWC(xs, signal_or_function)

Returns a continuous signal with piecewise-constant interpolation between x-values. The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal (or function) at the x-values, xs.

Examples

julia> s1 = PWC(0:3, [true, false, false, true]);

julia> s1(0.5)
true

julia> s1(1)
false

julia> sample_and_hold = PWC(0:45:360, sind);  # sin in degrees

julia> yvals(sample_and_hold)
9-element Vector{Float64}:
  0.0
  0.7071067811865476
  1.0
  0.7071067811865476
  0.0
 -0.7071067811865476
 -1.0
 -0.7071067811865476
  0.0

See also PWL, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.PWCubicFunction
PWCubic(xs, ys)
PWCubic(x_interval, y_interval)
PWCubic(xs, signal)
PWCubic(xs, function)

Returns a continuous signal with piecewise-cubic spline interpolation over the x-values. A cubic spline interpolation is continuously differentiable and hits each sample point exactly.

The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form takes two intervals for the domain of the signal. The third form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal at the x-values, xs while the fourth form samles a function.

Examples

julia> s = PWCubic(0:4, [0, 1, 1, 0, 3]);

julia> s(1) == 1.0 # samples maintained
true

julia> s(1.5)
1.2522321428571428

See also PWC, PWL, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.PWLFunction
PWL(xs, ys)
PWL(x_interval, y_interval)
PWL(xs, signal)
PWL(xs, function)

Returns a continuous signal with piecewise-linear interpolation over the x-values. The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form takes two intervals for the domain of the signal. The third form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal at the x-values, xs while the fourth form samles a function.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(0:3, [0,1,1,0]);

julia> t = PWL(0 .. 1, 0 .. 1); # time axis

julia> s2 = 1.5 + 3sin(2pi*t) + sin(2pi*3t);

julia> s3 = PWL(0:0.25:1, s2); # sample s2

See also PWC, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.PWQuadraticFunction
PWQuadratic(xs, ys)
PWQuadratic(x_interval, y_interval)
PWQuadratic(xs, signal)
PWQuadratic(xs, function)

Returns a continuous signal with piecewise-quadratic interpolation over the x-values. A quadradic interpolation is continuously differentiable and hits each sample point exactly.

The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form takes two intervals for the domain of the signal. The third form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal at the x-values, xs while the fourth form samles a function.

Examples

julia> s = PWQuadratic(0:4, [0, 1, 1, 0, 3]);

julia> s(1) == 1.0 # samples maintained
true

julia> s(1.5)
1.125

See also PWC, PWL, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, Series, domain.

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CedarWaves.SeriesFunction
Series(xs, ys)
Series(xs, signal)

Returns a discrete point-wise signal with no interpolation. The first form takes a vector of x- and corresponding y-values. The second form the y-values come from sampling a signal signal at the x-values, xs.

Examples

julia> s = Series(0:3, [0,1,1,0]);

julia> s2 = Series([0, 3], s); # sample s2

julia> s3 = Series(-360:360, cosd);

See also PWL, PWC, PWQuadratic, PWCubic, PWAkima, ContinuousFunction, domain.

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CedarWaves._ylimFunction
_ylim(object, extra_points)

Return the y-axis limits for the object (such as a signal or measurement). This is similar to extrema but skips NaN values.

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CedarWaves.autocorrelationMethod
autocorrelation(signal)

Computes the autocorrelation of a signal.

Examples

julia> t = 0:0.005:1;

julia> freq = 1;

julia> y = @. sin(2pi*freq*t);

julia> s = PWL(t, y);

julia> autocorr = autocorrelation(s);

julia> ym = ymax(autocorr);

julia> isapprox(ym.x, 0, atol=1e-10)
true

julia> ≈(ym, 0.5, atol=1e-4)
true
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CedarWaves.balanceFunction
S, P, B = balance(A[, perm=true])

Compute a similarity transform T = S*P resulting in B = T\A*T such that the row and column norms of B are approximately equivalent. If perm=false, the transformation will only scale A using diagonal S, and not permute A (i.e., set P=I).

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CedarWaves.balance_statespaceFunction

A, B, C, T = balance_statespace{S}(A::Matrix{S}, B::Matrix{S}, C::Matrix{S}, perm::Bool=false) sys, T = balance_statespace(sys::StateSpace, perm::Bool=false) Computes a balancing transformation T that attempts to scale the system so that the row and column norms of [TA/T TB; C/T 0] are approximately equal. If perm=true, the states in A are allowed to be reordered. This is not the same as finding a balanced realization with equal and diagonal observability and reachability gramians, see balreal

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CedarWaves.balance_transformFunction

T = balance_transform{R}(A::AbstractArray, B::AbstractArray, C::AbstractArray, perm::Bool=false) T = balance_transform(sys::StateSpace, perm::Bool=false) = balance_transform(A,B,C,perm) Computes a balancing transformation T that attempts to scale the system so that the row and column norms of [TA/T TB; C/T 0] are approximately equal. If perm=true, the states in A are allowed to be reordered. This is not the same as finding a balanced realization with equal and diagonal observability and reachability gramians, see balreal See also balance_statespace, balance

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CedarWaves.bandwidthMethod
bandwidth(signal, yth; band=:lowpass, name=band, options...)

Returns the bandwidth of a frequency-domain signal. The yth will be automatically converted to rising or falling depending on the filter band type. The yth is threshold in same units as signal, not a drop from the maximum.

The following types of band filter responses are supported:

  • :lowpass: a lowpass filter with exactly one falling edge (Default)
  • :highpass: a highpass filter with exactly one rising edge
  • :bandpass: a bandpass filter with exactly one rising edge followed by exactly one falling edge
  • :bandreject: a notch filter with exactly one falling edge followed by exactly one rising edge

An error is thrown if the number of crossings is unexpected.

Examples

To get 3dB bandwidth use:

# if `signal` is in dB:
bandwidth(signal, ymax(signal) - 3, band=:lowpass)

# if `signal` is in linear units:
bandwidth(signal, ymax(signal)/2, band=:lowpass)
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CedarWaves.bitpatternMethod
bitpattern(digital_input; tbit, trise, tfall=trise, tdelay=0, lo=0, hi)

Returns a PWL signal representing a bit pattern of digital_input vector of bools.

Arguments:

  • digital_input: vector of bools repersenting the sequence of bits
  • tbit: time between bits/pulses
  • trise: rise time of a pulse
  • tfall: fall time of a pulse (default is trise)
  • tdelay: delay before the first bit
  • lo: value of the low state (default is 0)
  • hi: value of the high state

Examples

const n = 1e-9
s = bitpattern([false,true,false,true,true], tbit=10n, trise=1n, tfall=3n, tdelay=1n, lo=0, hi=1.2)
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CedarWaves.clipFunction
clip(signal, from..to)
clip(signal)

Return a signal that is a window onto the original signal between the from and to x-axis points. This function is very fast as no copies are made of the original signal. Successive clips can be used as a sliding window as long as the limits stay within the domain of the original signal. To unclip a signal back to the full domain use clip(signal) without any bounds.

Examples

julia> pwl = PWL(0.0:3, [0.0, 1, -1, 0]);

julia> s1 = clip(pwl, 0.2 .. 2.5);

julia> s1(0.2)
0.2

julia> s1(2.5)
-0.5

julia> s1(2.8)
ERROR: DomainError with 2.8:
not in its clipped interval of [0.2 .. 2.5]

julia> series = Series(-10:10, sin);

julia> s2 = clip(series, -5 .. 5);

julia> s2(0)
0.0

julia> s2(8)
ERROR: DomainError with 8:
not in its clipped discrete interval of [-5.0 .. 5.0]

To unclip a signal back to the parent domain use clip without any arguments:

julia> s2b = clip(s2);

julia> s2b(8)
0.9893582466233818

See also domain, xshift, xscale, ZeroPad.

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CedarWaves.closest_indexMethod
closest_index(vec, x)

Returns the index of the closest element of vector v to x"

Examples

julia> closest_index(-5:5, -0.4)
6
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CedarWaves.convolutionMethod
convolution(signal1, signal2)

Returns the convolution of the two signals. Both signals are zero padded beyond their domains so they do not throw domain errors durring the convolution operation. See also impulse.

Examples

julia> s = convolution(PWL(-1:1, [0,1,0]), PWL(-1:1, [0,1,0]));

julia> s(0) ≈ 2/3
true

Calculate the response of an RC circuit given the impulse response:

julia> R, C = 2000, 3e-6; # RC circuit

julia> τ = R*C
0.006

julia> t = PWL([0, 5τ], [0, 5τ]);

julia> hs = 1/τ * exp(-t/τ); # impulse response

julia> square_wave_input = PWL([0, τ], [1, 1]);

julia> yt = convolution(square_wave_input, hs);

julia> isapprox(yt(τ), 1 - exp(-1), atol=0.0001)
true
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CedarWaves.crossMethod
cross(s, yth; N=1, options...)

Returns the Nth crossing (x-value) of a signal.

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CedarWaves.crosscorrelationMethod
crosscorrelation(sig1, sig2)

Computes the cross-correlation of two signals.

Examples

julia> s1 = PWL([2, 3, 4], [0, 2, 4]);

julia> s2 = PWL([3, 4, 5], [6, 3, 0]);

julia> corr = crosscorrelation(s1, s2);

julia> (xmin(corr), xmax(corr)) == (-1, 3)
true

julia> corr.(xmin(corr):xmax(corr)) ≈ [0, 1, 8, 13, 0]
true
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CedarWaves.crossesMethod
crosses(signal, yth; limit=Inf, trace=true, options...)
crosses(signal; yth, limit=Inf, trace=true, options...)

Return all crosses of yth as a vector of x-values, up to a limit of limit values.

See also cross, eachcross, Thresholds, and pct.

Examples

To find the x-values for all the times the y-value crosses 0.5:

julia> crosses(PWL(0:3, [0, 1, 0, 1]), 0.5)
3-element Vector{CrossMeasure}:
 0.5
 1.5
 2.5

To find the x-values for all the times the y-value rises above 50% of full swing:

julia> crosses(PWL(0:3, [0, 1, 0, 1]), rising(50pct))
3-element Vector{CrossMeasure}:
 0.5
 2.5
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CedarWaves.dB10Function
dB10(x)
dB10(signal)

Returns 10*log10(x). For a signal it operates on the y-values. If the value is complex then abs(x) is used. Typically used to convert a value in watts to dB.

Examples

julia> dB10(100)
20.0

julia> s = dB10(PWL([1, 10], [1, 10]));

julia> s(2)
3.010299956639812

julia> s(4)
6.020599913279624

julia> s(10)
10.0

See also dB20, dBm.

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CedarWaves.dB20Function
dB20(x)
dB20(signal)

Returns 20*log10(x). For a signal it operates on the y-values. If the value is complex then abs(x) is used. Typically used to convert a signal in volts to dB.

Examples

julia> dB20(100)
40.0

julia> s = dB20(PWL([1, 10], [1, 10]));

julia> s(2)
6.020599913279624

julia> s(10)
20.0

See also dB10, dBm.

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CedarWaves.dBmFunction
dBm(x)
dBm(signal)

Returns 10*log10(x)+30. For signals it operates on the y-values. If the value is complex then abs(x) is used. Typically used to convert to watts to decibel relative to 1 mW.

julia> dBm(100)
50.0

julia> dBm(PWL(1:10, 1:10));

julia> dBm(1)
30.0

julia> dBm(10)
40.0

See also dB10, dB20.

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CedarWaves.delayMethod
delay(; signal1, yth1, signal2=signal, yth2=yth1, N1=1, N2=1, name="delay", sigdigits=4)

Returns a delay measurement of a signal, signal.

Options

  • signal1: the signal to measure the first crossing
  • signal2: the signal to measure the second crossing (defaults to signal)
  • yth1: the y-value at which to look for the first crossing.
  • yth2: the y-value at which to look for the second crossing (default yth1).
  • N1: the number of edge crossings to find the first crossing (default 1).
  • N2: the number of edge crossings to find the second crossing (default 1). This is relative to the first crossing.
  • name: the name of the measure
  • sigdigits: the number of sigdigits to display

The delay measurement is an object containing the plot of the delay as well as attributes for measurements related to delay, such as:

  • name: the name of the measurement
  • value: the value of the measurement
  • sigdigits: the number of sigdigits to display
  • signal1: the first signal that was measured
  • signal2: the second signal that was measured
  • x1: the first crossing (x-value) at yth1
  • y1: the first crossing (y-value) is yth1
  • x2: the second crossing (x-value) at yth2
  • y2: the second crossing (y-value) is yth2
  • dx: the transition time (x2 - x1)
  • dy: the vertical change (y2 - y1)
  • slope: the slew rate (dy/dx)

The properties can be accessed as properties like meas.dx to get the transition time.

Examples

t = 0:0.005:1
freq = 2
y = @. 0.5*(1 + sin(2pi*freq*t) + 1/3*sin(2pi*freq*3t) + 1/5*sin(2pi*freq*5t));
s1 = PWL(t, y)
s2 = 1 - s1
meas = delay(signal1=s1, signal2=s2, yth1=0.5)
meas.dy

In addition the risetime measure object returned acts as its value when used in a mathematical expression:

meas/2

See also risetime, falltime, slewrate.

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CedarWaves.derivativeMethod
derivative(signal)

Returns the derivative of continuous signal, signal.

julia> s1 = derivative(PWL(0:3, [0, -2, -1, -1]));

julia> s1(0)
-2.0

julia> s1(0.5)
-2.0

julia> s1(1.5)
1.0

julia> s1(2.5)
0.0
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CedarWaves.domainMethod
domain(signal)

Returns the domain of a signal. This can be used to check if an x-value is a valid value. Otherwise a DomainError will be thrown.

julia> s = PWL(0:3, 10:13);

julia> 0 in domain(s)
true

julia> 5 in domain(s)
false

julia> s2 = Series(-10:10, sin);

julia> 0 in domain(s2)
true

julia> 0.5 in domain(s2)
false
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CedarWaves.domainsFunction
domains(sampled_signal)
domains(function_signal, n=100)

Return an iterator of the domains of a signal. If a signal is sampled then domains over each pair of samples is returned, otherwise 100 domains are returned by default.

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CedarWaves.dutycycleMethod
dutycycle(signal, yth)

Returns the duty cycle of signal with a threshold yth, in other words, the percentage of time signal is above yth.

julia> tri = PWL(1:3, [-1, 1, -1]);

julia> dutycycle(tri, 0)
0.5

julia> dutycycle(tri, 0.5)
0.25

julia> dutycycle(tri, -0.5)
0.75
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CedarWaves.dutycyclesMethod
dutycycles(signal, yth, window)

Computes dutycycle over a sliding window.

julia> t = PWL(0:0.001:1, 0:0.001:1);

julia> s = (sinpi(100*t)+sinpi(4*t));

julia> extrema(dutycycles(s, 0, 0.1))
(0.10256410256410278, 0.8974358974358968)

See also dutycycle, iirfilter. firfilter.

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CedarWaves.eachxMethod
eachx(signal, [dx])

Returns an iterator over the sampled x-values of a signal (continuous or discrete). Or the x values spaces at dx intervals.

Tip

If you want a vector for indexing operations use collect(eachx(s)) or xvals(s) – although this is much less memory efficient in most cases.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(1e-9 * [0, 0.05, 0.95, 1.0], [0, 1, 1, 0]);

julia> s2 = xscale(s, 1e9);  # convert to ns

julia> xs = collect(eachx(s2))
4-element Vector{Float64}:
 0.0
 0.05
 0.95
 1.0

See also eachy, eachxy, xvals, yvals, collect.

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CedarWaves.eachxyMethod
eachxy(signal, [dx])

Returns an iterator over the sampled x- and y-values pairs of a signal (continuous or discrete). Or the xy pairs sampled at dx intervals

Tip

If you want a vector for indexing operations use collect(eachxy(s)) – although this is much less memory efficient in most cases.

Examples

s = PWL([0, 0.05, 0.95, 1.0], [0, 1, 1, 0]);

for (x, y) in eachxy(s)
  # Do something with each x and y
end

See also eachx, eachy, eachxy, xvals, yvals, collect.

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CedarWaves.eachyMethod
eachy(signal, [dx])

Returns an iterator over the sampled y-values of a signal (continuous or discrete). Or the y values sampled at dx intervals

Tip

If you want a vector for indexing operations use collect(eachy(s)) or yvals(s) – although this is much less memory efficient in most cases.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(1e-9 * [0, 0.05, 0.95, 1.0], [0, 1, 1, 0]);

julia> ys = collect(eachy(s))
4-element Vector{Float64}:
 0.0
 1.0
 1.0
 0.0

See also eachx, eachxy, xvals, yvals, collect.

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CedarWaves.extrapolateMethod
extrapolate(signal, from..to)

Converts an extrapolated signal (periodic, zero padded) to a finite signal.

Extrapolated signals are infinite, but only have a finite set of actual data that is for example padded or repeated. To work correctly, most measurements on infinite signals only consider this finite set of base data. This way you can for example find the RMS of an infinite periodic signal.

However, clipping an extrapolated signal can lead to unexpected results. You might for example expect measurements to consider the whole clipped signal. Or the base samples of the signal may lay entirely outside the clipped domain. Or a periodic signal might not actually be periodic anymore.

So instead of clipping the signal, extrapolate turns an infinite signal into a finite one, with samples throughout. This leads to measurements treating the signal as any other finite signal. For example, the RMS of a zero-padded signal will now include the finite padding. And all the crossings of a periodic signal in the interval will be detected.

Examples

julia> s = Periodic(PWL(1:3, [0, 1, 0]));

julia> crosses(s, 0.5)
2-element Vector{CrossMeasure}:
 1.5
 2.5

julia> crosses(extrapolate(s, 3..7), 0.5)
4-element Vector{CrossMeasure}:
 3.5
 4.5
 5.5
 6.5

See also clip, ZeroPad. Periodic.

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CedarWaves.falltimeMethod
falltime(signal, yth1, yth2; name="falltime", options...)

Returns a falltime measurement of a signal, signal, from falling threshold yth1 to yth2.

Options

  • name: the name of the measure
  • sigdigits: the number of sigdigits to display (default 5)
  • trace: if true will keep signals used for the measurement for debugging

Examples

t = 0:0.005:1
freq = 2
y = @. 0.5*(1 + sin(2pi*freq*t) + 1/3*sin(2pi*freq*3t) + 1/5*sin(2pi*freq*5t));
s = PWL(t, y)
meas = falltime(s, 0.8, 0.2)
meas.dy

In addition the falltime measure object returned acts as its value when used in a mathematical expression:

meas/2

See also risetime, slewrate, delay.

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CedarWaves.find_min_itrFunction
find_min_itr(xy_pair_iterator, func=+)

Returns the (miny, minx) tuple of the mimium of func(y) over the xy pair iterator. func is used to apply a transformation to the y values. For example func=- will find the maximum while + (default) finds the minimum.

Note: this function only iterates over samples (does not do interpolation like optimize_min_point).

Examples

julia> s = PWL(0:2, [0.5, 1, 0.0]);

julia> CedarWaves.find_min_itr(eachxy(s), +)
(0.0, 2.0)

julia> CedarWaves.find_min_itr(eachxy(s), -)
(1.0, 1.0)

See also optimize_min_point.

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CedarWaves.firfilterFunction

firfilter(ftype, span, window=hanning)

A filter design method based on windowed sinc functions.

ftype can be a Lowpass, Highpass, Bandpass, or Bandstop span is the truncated length of the filter window is the windowing function that is applied, defaults to hanning.

To filter a signal, use convolution(s, flt) To see the frequency response of the filter, use FT(flt; clip=fmin..fmax)

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CedarWaves.flipMethod
flip(signal)

Flips a signal along the x-axis, so a signal whose domain is a .. b is transformed to return the original signal's values along b .. a.

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CedarWaves.frequencyMethod
frequency(signal, yth; name="frequency", options...)

Returns the two-point frequency of a signal, measured at the first two crossings by signal of yth.

Examples

t = 0:0.005:1
freq = 2
y = @. 0.5*(1 + sin(2pi*freq*t) + 1/3*sin(2pi*freq*3t) + 1/5*sin(2pi*freq*5t));
s = PWL(t, y)
yth = 0.5
meas = frequency(s, yth)
meas_rising = frequency(s, rising(yth))
meas.value, meas_rising.value

See also risetime, slewrate, delay.

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CedarWaves.iDFTMethod
iDFT(series[; mode=real])

Returns an inverse Discrete Fourier Transform function of a discrete frequency-domain series, series, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{iDFT}(S)\big)(x) = s(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{N-1} S(\mathit{freq}) \exp\left(j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\, n \,T_\mathit{step}\right)\]

julia> idft = iDFT(signal, 0 .. 1e-9, mode=real);

julia> idft(0) # time zero value
0.5

julia> plot(idft) # plot the result

Arguments

  • mode can be one real or complex. The default is real which returns the time domain signal as real numbers.

See also FT, FS, DFT, iFT, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.iDTFTMethod
iDFT(signal, [mode, integral_options...])
Warning

This is not yet implemented.

Return a Signal which is the Inverse Discrete Time Fourier Transform function of a discrete signal, signal.

See also FT, FS, DFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.iFSMethod
iFS(series, time_interval[; mode, integral_options...])

Returns a Inverse Fourier Series function of a discrete frequency-domain series, series, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{iFS}(S)\big)(x) = s(x) = \sum_{\mathit{freq}=-\infty}^{+\infty} S(\mathit{freq}) \exp\left(j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\, x\right)\]

where freq is a multiple of k*Fmin and k = ... -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ....

julia> fs = iFS(signal, 0 .. 1e-9);

julia> fs(0) # DC value
0.5 + 0.0im

julia> plot(fs) # plot the result

Arguments

  • mode can be one real or complex. The default is real which returns the time domain signal as real numbers.
  • integral_options are options that can be passed to integral.
Warning

Inifinite extent signals cannot be computed in finite time so ensure to clip the frequency domain signal to be finite.

See also FT, FS, DFT, iFT, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.iFTMethod
iFT(signal, [clip, mode, integral_options...])

Return a Signal which is the Inverse Fourier Transform function of a continuous signal, signal, according to the formula:

\[\big(\mathrm{iFT}(S)\big)(x) = s(x) = \frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} S(\mathit{freq}) \exp(j 2\pi \mathit{freq}\, x) \,\mathrm{d}\mathit{freq}\]

The Inverse Fourier Transform is for aperiodic signals. To get the value of the Inverse Fourier Transform call the transform with the frequency of interest:

julia> ift = iFT(signal);

julia> ift(0, mode=real) # at time zero
0.5

julia> plot(ift) # plot the result

Options

  • clip is an interval of the Inverse Fourier Transform result. By default it is ±10 times 1/xspan(signal). The Inverse Fourier Transnform itself goes from -Inf..Inf and the time domain can be changed with clipping the result again clip(FT(signal), 0 .. 0.001) (which is equivalent to iFT(signal, clip=0 .. 0.001)). Infinite domains are not returned by default because they cannot be plotted.
  • mode can be one real or complex. The default is real which returns the time domain signal as real numbers.
  • integral_options are options that can be passed to integral.

See also FT, FS, DFT, iFS, iDFT.

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CedarWaves.impulseMethod
impulse(width)

Returns a signal representing a finite impulse with a triangle of PWL([-width, 0, width], [0, 1/width, 0]). The intergral of the impulse is 1.

Examples

julia> s = impulse(1e-12);

julia> integral(s)
1.0

See also convolution.

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CedarWaves.inspectFunction
inspect(x)

Inspect the object, such as a measurement, to show more information (for debugging).

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CedarWaves.integralFunction
integral(signal, [domain; options...])
integral(function, domain; [options...])

Returns the integral (via numerical integration) of a continuous function or signal over its domain, according to the formula:

\[\mathrm{integral}(s)=\int_{\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} s(x)\,\mathrm{d}x\]

\[\mathrm{integral}\big(s, (a,b)\big)=\int_{a}^{b} s(x)\,\mathrm{d}x\]

For signals if no domain is provided then it will use the domain of the signal.

Options

The following keyword options are supported:

  • rtol: relative error tolerance (defaults to sqrt(eps) in the precision of the endpoints.
  • atol: absolute error tolerance (defaults to 1e-12). Note that for small currents it's recommended to use 0.
  • maxevals: maximum number of function evaluations (defaults to 10^7)
  • order: order of the integration rule (defaults to 7).
  • error_value: whether to return the estimated upper bound of the absolute error (default to false). If true the value will returned as the number with the error bound like (3.2, 0.0001).

Examples

julia> integral(PWL(0:2, [1,0,1]))
1.0

julia> integral(x->exp(-x), 0..Inf)
1.0

julia> integral(sin, 0 .. 1000pi, error_value=true) |> vals -> round.(vals, sigdigits=5)
(-7.2429e-14, 9.7044e-13)

See also sum.

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CedarWaves.iscontinuousFunction
iscontinuous(signal)

Returns true if a signal has a continuous (not discrete) domain.

Examples

julia> iscontinuous(PWL(0:1, 0:1))
true

julia> iscontinuous(PWC(0:1, 0:1))
true

julia> iscontinuous(Series(0:1, 0:1))
false

See also isdiscrete, signal_kind.

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CedarWaves.issampledFunction
issampled(signal)

Returns true if the signal is from sampled data (e.g. not a pure function).

Examples

julia> issampled(PWCubic(0:2, [0,1,0]))
true

julia> issampled(ContinuousFunction(exp))
false

See also iscontinuous, isdiscrete.

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CedarWaves.logspaceMethod
logspace(start, stop; length)

Returns logarithmically spaced values with length points from start to stop.

Examples

julia> logspace(0.1, 1000, length=5)
5-element Vector{Float64}:
    0.1
    1.0
   10.0
  100.0
 1000.0
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CedarWaves.new_signalMethod
new_signal(signal; kwargs...)

Creates a signal with modifications to signal signal with the fields modified as keyword arguments, kwargs. ```

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CedarWaves.optimize_min_pointFunction
optimize_min_point(signal, func)

Finds the global mimimum of func ∘ signal and return (signal(minx), minx). For continuous signals the mimimum could be between samples and a global optimizer is used with the best sample as the starting point. For periodic signals only the base domain is considered. The optimization method does not guarantee to find the global optimum.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(0:2, [0.5, 1, 0.0]);

julia> CedarWaves.optimize_min_point(s, +)
(0.0, 2.0)

julia> CedarWaves.optimize_min_point(s, -)
(1.0, 1.0)

See also find_min_itr.

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CedarWaves.pairup_conjugates!Method

Reorder the vector x of complex numbers so that complex conjugates come after each other, with the one with positive imaginary part first. Returns true if the conjugates can be paired and otherwise false.

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CedarWaves.phaseMethod
phase(real)
phase(complex)
phase(signal)

Returns the phase of a complex number or signal in radians. Alias for angle.

Tip

Since pi is an approximate number it is better for accuracy to work in degrees, see phased.

Examples

julia> phase(pi)
0.0

julia> s = phase(PWL(0:1, [1, im]));

julia> s(0.5) ≈ 2pi/8
true

See also abs, real, imag, conj, phased, angle, rad2deg, deg2rad.

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CedarWaves.risetimeMethod
risetime(signal, yth1, yth2; options...)

Returns a risetime measurement of a signal, signal, from rising threshold yth1 to yth2.

Options

  • name: the name of the measure
  • sigdigits: the number of sigdigits to display (default 5)
  • trace: if true will keep signals used for the measurement for debugging

Examples

t = 0:0.005:1
freq = 2
y = @. 0.5*(1 + sin(2pi*freq*t) + 1/3*sin(2pi*freq*3t) + 1/5*sin(2pi*freq*5t));
s = PWL(t, y)
meas = risetime(s, 0.2, 0.8)
meas.dy

In addition the risetime measure object returned acts as its value when used in a mathematical expression:

meas/2

See also falltime, slewrate, delay.

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CedarWaves.rmsMethod
rms(signal; name="rms", options...)

Returns sqrt(mean(signal^2)), the root-mean-squared value of a signal. The mean value changes depending on if the signal is discrete or continuous.

Examples

julia> rms(PWL(0:2, [-1,0,1])) ≈ 1/sqrt(3)
true

julia> rms(Series(0:2, [-1,0,1])) ≈ sqrt(2/3)
true

See also sum, mean, std, integral.

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CedarWaves.signal_kindMethod
signal_kind(signal)

Returns the if the signal is a continuous (ContinuousKind) or discrete (DiscreteKind) kind.

Examples

julia> signal_kind(PWL(0:1, 0:1))
ContinuousSignal

julia> signal_kind(PWC(0:1, 0:1))
ContinuousSignal

julia> signal_kind(Series(0:1, 0:1))
DiscreteSignal

See also iscontinuous, isdiscrete.

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CedarWaves.slewrateMethod
slewrate(signal, yth1, yth2, name="slewrate", options...)

Returns a slewrate measurement of a signal, signal.

Options

  • name: the name of the measure
  • sigdigits: the number of sigdigits to display

Examples

t = 0:0.005:1
freq = 2
y = @. 0.5*(1 + sin(2pi*freq*t) + 1/3*sin(2pi*freq*3t) + 1/5*sin(2pi*freq*5t));
s = PWL(t, y)
meas = slewrate(s, 0.8, 0.2)
meas.dy/meas.dx

In addition the slewrate measure object returned acts as its value when used in a mathematical expression:

meas/2

See also risetime, slewrate, delay.

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CedarWaves.toplotMethod
toplot(signal[; pixels])

Returns an x- and y-vector of points that are suitable for plotting. The number of pixels to display can be passed as a keyword argument.

Examples

using Plots
t = PWL(0 .. 2pi, 0 .. 2pi)
s = sin(t)
x, y = toplot(s)
plot(x, y)
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CedarWaves.xscaleMethod
xscale(signal, value)

Returns a new signal with the x-axis of signal scaled by value. See also xshift.

julia> s1 = PWL([0, 1e-9, 2e-9], [1,2,3]);

julia> s1(0.5e-9)
1.5

julia> s2 = xscale(s1, 1e9); # to ns

julia> s2(0.5) # in ns
1.5
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CedarWaves.xshiftMethod
xshift(signal, value)

Returns a new signal with the x-axis of signal shifted by value. Positive is a right shift while negative shifts left.

julia> s1 = xshift(PWL(0:2, [1,2,3]), 3);

julia> s1(3)
1.0

julia> s1(5)
3.0
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CedarWaves.xtypeMethod
xtype(signal)

Returns the type of the x-values element type.

Examples

julia> dig = PWC(0:3, [false, true, true, false]);

julia> xtype(dig)
Float64

Note the xtype for a continuous signal is a Float64 (not an Int64).

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CedarWaves.xvalsMethod
xvals(signal, [dx])

Returns an vector of the sampled x-values of a signal (continuous or discrete). Or the x values spaces at dx intervals

Tip

If the full vector isn't needed in the end it may be faster to iterate over the x-values one-by-one with eachx.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(1e-9 * [0, 0.05, 0.95, 1.0], [0, 1, 1, 0]);

julia> s2 = xscale(s, 1e9);  # convert to ns

julia> xs = xvals(s2)
4-element Vector{Float64}:
 0.0
 0.05
 0.95
 1.0

See also eachx, eachy, eachxy, yvals, collect.

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CedarWaves.ymap_signalMethod
ymap_signal(func, signal)

Creates a new signal by applying the function func to each y-value of signal. The func takes a single y-value and returns a modified y-value.

Tip

Ensure func does not use signal.full_transform because it is already applied by ymap_signal.

julia> double(s::Signal) = ymap_signal(y->2y, s)
double (generic function with 1 method)

julia> s = double(PWL(0:1, 1:2));

julia> s(0.5)
3.0
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CedarWaves.ytypeFunction
ytype(signal)

Returns the type of the y-values element type.

Examples

julia> dig = PWC(0:3, [false, true, true, false]);

julia> ytype(dig)
Bool

Note the xtype for a continuous signal is a Float64 (not an Int64).

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CedarWaves.yvalsMethod
yvals(signal, [dx])

Returns an vector of the sampled y-values of a signal (continuous or discrete). Or the y values sampled at dx intervals

Tip

If the full vector isn't needed in the end it may be faster to iterate over the y-values one-by-one with eachy.

Examples

julia> s = PWL(1e-9 * [0, 0.05, 0.95, 1.0], [0, 1, 1, 0]);

julia> ys = yvals(s)
4-element Vector{Float64}:
 0.0
 1.0
 1.0
 0.0

See also eachx, eachy, eachxy, xvals, collect.

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Statistics.meanFunction
mean(signal)

Calculate the mean value of a signal. For continuous signals the formula is:

\[\mathrm{mean}(s)=\frac{1}{\mathrm{xspan}(s)} \int_{\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} s(x)\,\mathrm{d}x\]

For discrete signals with N elements the formula is:

\[\mathrm{mean}(s) = \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} s[n]\]

Examples

julia> mean(PWL(0:2, [0,12,0]))
6.0

julia> mean(Series(0:2, [0,12,0]))
4.0

julia> mean(PWL(0:2, [1,0,1])) ≈ 0.5
true

julia> mean(Series(0:2, [1,0,1])) == 2/3
true

See also sum, integral, rms, std.

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Statistics.stdFunction
std(signal; <keyword arguments>)

Returns the standard deviation of a signal. For continuous signals the formula is:

\[\mathrm{std}(s) = \sqrt{\frac{1}{\mathrm{xspan}(s)}\int_{\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} \big(s(x) - \mathrm{mean}(s)\big)^2\,\mathrm{d}x}\]

for discrete signals:

\[\mathrm{std}(s) = \sqrt{\frac{1}{\mathrm{xspan}(s)} \sum_{n=\mathrm{xmin}(s)}^{\mathrm{xmax}(s)} \big(s[n] - \mathrm{mean}(s)\big)^2}\]

Arguments

  • mean: the pre-computed mean of the signal (optional).
  • corrected: if true (default) then it is scaled by n-1, otherwise by n (for discrete signals only).

Examples

julia> std(Series(0:2, [0, -1, 0])) == std([0, -1, 0])
true

julia> std(Series(0:2, [1, -2, 1]), corrected=false) == rms(Series(0:2, [1, -2, 1])) # std == rms when mean is zero
true

julia> std(PWL(0:1, [-1, 1])) ≈ 1/sqrt(3)
true

See also sum, mean, rms, integral.

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